‘No magic bullet’ for manufactured-home owners facing steep rent increases

A room full of unhappy people looking to solve a problem

Feelings of helplessness, anger and frustration brought some manufactured home owners to tears last week as they reckoned with the reality that they could soon be rendered homeless. About 200 Snohomish County residents gathered during a two-hour forum held at Homage Senior Services to air their grievances about rising rent, frustrating new rules and managerial conduct amidst the corporate acquisition of their parks. 

One woman concerned about new trash collection fees

The Lynnwood Heights, Royalwood Estates and Martha Lake mobile home parks are among several that have been purchased by property management company Collective Communities, whose only presence in Washington is a mailbox in a Vancouver, Wash. strip mall. Residents of those parks sought assistance from the Lynnwood City Council in May

Sharon from Canyon Mobile Park in Bothell asked about how management was regulated and spoke about the negative effects of long-term demolition.

Renters at Royalwood Estates are seeing a 32% rent increase from two years ago while Martha Lake Park renters  are experiencing a 28% rent hike. Another park saw a 16% increase last year and will be facing a 30% increase this year. Tenants are also reeling from the impact of new regulations that include the removal of air conditioning units from windows, demands that renters repaint their homes to fit a specific standard and requirements that carport covers match the color of their homes. In addition, park residents are facing new utility fees that were previously included in rent, along with increased late fees.

This woman asked about property taxation.

Several residents said that they purchased their homes decades ago with the intention of staying in a low-cost property that would allow them to live their golden years in peace. One woman spoke about her inability to eat or sleep properly due to the changes Another added that her medical conditions had begun to flare up as a result of the stress. 

“I don’t want to die on the streets,”  said one woman.

Lynnwood City Council President George Hurst and State Sen. June Robinson have been active in addressing housing disparities in local manufactured housing communities.

Lynnwood City Council President George Hurst stated that he organized the forum so that residents could discuss the manufactured home issues with local lawmakers and so that officials could inform residents of resources that may be available to them. During his comments, Hurst and other commenters lamented the lack of options they had to immediately ease the issue — with Hurst stating there was no “magic bullet” they could use to fix the situation. 

KIRO reporter Dave Ross moderated the conversations

The event was split into three panels, followed by a Q&A session for residents.

L-R: Anne Sadler with the Washington Association of Manufactured Homeowners (WAMHO) and Ishbel Dickens, a retired attorney and community advocate.
Duane Leonard with the Housing Authority of Snohomish County (HASCO)

First, there was a general overview of parks ownership and groups that are working to expand rights for renters and manufactured home owners, followed by an explanation of resources and collectives that offered support. Finally, elected officials – including Hurst, State Rep. and County Councilmember Strom Peterson, State Sen. June Robinson and County Council Chair Jared Mead, State Rep. Lauren Davis, Mountlake Terrace Mayor Kyoko Matsumoto Wright and Mountlake Terrace Councilmembers Steve Woodard and Rory Paine-Donovan – explained their efforts to bring the issue to the attention of local legislative bodies.

One of several tables set up with information about resources and advocacy efforts

Speakers in panel one provided an explanation of a recent lobbying success led by the Washington Association of Manufactured Homeowners (WAMHO)– Senate Bill 5198. Also known as the Manufactured/Mobile Home Landlord-Tenant Act, SB 5198 passed in 2023 and requires the property owner of a mobile home community to notify tenants of an ownership change or lot closure two years in advance. 

Another WAMHO success is Senate Bill 6059, passed in 2024, which ensures that park tenants are notified of a sale and given the opportunity to compete for purchase of the property.

Lynnwood City Council Vice President Julieta Altamirano-Crosby was joined by other Lynnwood representatives, including Mayor Christine Frizzell and City Councilmember David Parshall

Also introduced during the 2024 session was House Bill 2114, which would have capped annual rent increases for renters and manufactured homeowners at 5%. The bill narrowly passed in the Washington House but failed to make it out of the Senate Ways and Means Committee.

Jake Bond, principal with Collective Communities, said that previous management hid issues and delayed maintenance in the parks, which set the stage for repairs and thus, rent increases.

Jake Bond, a principal with Collective Communities, was the only representative of the company  present during the forumand was the recipient of nearly every question received during the Q&A portion of the forum. He began by stating that the corporation and those attending were “all in the same boat here,” which drew jeers and booing from the audience. Bond said the rent increases were  necessary due to infrastructural and utility repair needs in the existing parks that were neglected and put off by previous owners. When asked to elaborate about the specific expenses, Bond cited the sewer system in one park, with costs exceeding $70,000 to $80,000. 

A property owner who reiterated that although he was not advocating for Collective Communities, the properties did require significant repair and that would cost money.

Commenters generally agreed with the notion that the parks were in need of repair, though many said drastically raising rent to immediately recoup costs was bad business and that the company purchased the properties with the knowledge that they would need repair. Speakers also added that other expenses were unnecessary, such as refurnishing the apartments of on-site managers and creating bocce ball courts. One woman said that said refurnishings were put ahead of a well-known sinkhole issue in front of her home. 

Victoria O’ Banion with Resident Owned Communities (ROC) Northwest
Kim Toskey, Homes and Hope Community Land Trust
Ann Campbell and Homeownership Unit Managing Director with the Washington State Department of Commerce

Several resource groups for manufactured-home owners spoke about the kind of work their organizations or governmental bodies do. They detailed the viability or non-viability of forming collective purchasing groups as well as providing information about relocation assistance and case management for individual homes that would be displaced. 

State Rep. and County Councilmember Strom Peterson

State Sen. June Robinson described a similar forum she held in her own district and said that she’d heard many of the same concerns from the residents north of Snohomish County. She and Rep. Strom Peterson also described the recent successes in the state Legislature, then spoke about other housing policy changes they were working on. These included pushes for transparency in fee and rent increases, promoting a general increase in housing supply and rent stabilization initiatives. Strom said that while Snohomish County had led the state in housing assistance, it was now running out of money.

Bond was quickly surrounded by anxious residents after the programming concluded.

–Story and photos by Jasmine Contreras-Lewis

    1. Hi MG,
      Could you help us understand what you mean by a “regional commitment to housing scarcity”? How big is the region? What free market factors are contributing to housing scarcity?

      1. Sure thing. The region I’m considering here consists of the Puget Sound-area cities of Auburn, Bellevue, Bothell, Burien, Des Moines, Edgewood, Edmonds, Everett, Federal Way, Fife, Fircrest, Issaquah, Kenmore, Kent, Kirkland, LFP, Lakewood, Lynnwood, Mercer Island, Mill Creek, Milton, MLT, Mukilteo, Newcastle, Normandy Park, Puyallup, Redmond, Renton, SeaTac, Seattle, Shoreline, Sumner, Tacoma, Tukwila, and University Place. These 35 cities collectively cover 498 sq. miles, and are home to 2,595,191 people. (This data is from the zoning atlas compiled by the Urban Institute – https://www.urban.org/research/publication/making-room-housing-near-transit – merged with 2020 Census block population data.)

        Across these cities, 78.4% of all residentially-zoned land is limited to the development of ≦ 6 homes per parcel of land. 64.3% of the total population of these cities lives within these areas. (The vast, vast, vast majority of this area is limited to just 1 home: exclusively detached/”single family” zoning.) Development of > 6 homes per parcel is permitted on the remaining 21.6% of residential land, which is home to 35.7% of the total area population.

        The overwhelming prevalence of detached-exclusive/”single-family” zoning distorts our regional housing market. These zones, which function as geographic production limits, inhibited regional housing supply growth from adequately responding to regional housing demand growth as the Seattle area created jobs (esp. 10s-on.) More natural supply growth would have allowed greater downward filtering & chain-of-moves impacts, reducing inflationary pressures.

        1. This is happening everywhere. I live in a small city in Iowa. I sold my home because every 3-4 months we would get a lot rent icrese.
          We also bought that home to retire in but my husband passed and rent kept raising, rules kept changing or increasing but to this day doing nothing to maintain the courts to look nice. It’s a shame

      2. I also will note that by the private housing market has not historically been successful at sustainably creating homes affordable to those on the lowest end of the income spectrum (which is where we see public investment/subsidy.) This reporting suggests that many of the folks who are at risk of being displaced in this particular situation have such limited incomes that they would qualify for some form of subsidized housing: however, I would be surprised if it was accessible to them in the near-term, given the waiting lists/periods that exist for most subsidized homes (generally, years) because of constraints on funding+capacity.

        So, while market prices are higher than they would be if supply was allowed to keep pace with demand, and more homes would likely exist at price points approachable to some of these households – and acknowledging that some households that currently live in publicly subsidized homes would be able to exit the system if overall prices were lower, freeing up system capacity for new households – there is almost certainly a necessary role retained by public subsidy in the “abundant housing” scenario. Subsidized housing faces also occasionally faces regional permitting obstacles, including limitations on building form/site geometry, that affect the size of that “bucket” of homes as well. The interplay is complicated and structurally sustainable solutions will have to be multi-faceted, for sure.

  1. I support this great idea that needs attention: Community Land Trusts. The land that these homes are on could be held in a trust so that profit making is taken out of the equation. I heard about this from Kim Toskey, Homes and Hope Community Land Trust who is in one of these photos above. This organization should have greater support. It would help increase the affordable housing everywhere.

    1. I grew up in Bellingham, which had (probably still has) the Kulshan Community Land Trust. My parents were supporters, and when they explained the organization to me, it made total sense. We owe it to our community members to help keep housing affordable.

      1. My husband and I are faced with the same thing in Valley-Center, Ca.
        Great senior park, was mismanaged by owners so to recoup losses, raised our rent 955 to 1600.00 w a 250 rebate only if we signed new lease. Now so many homes for sale , we can’t sell, we’re going to lose everything if we can’t by Aug.
        We all need to band together and fight these people together, get our government. Attention

  2. Landlords usually do not increase rents for “pure pleasure”. Raises are usually consequence of costs increases caused by taxes going up (and new ones), insurance fees increasing, inflation (they have to repair the properties), etc. Therefore, putting all blame on them is not a very educated action.

    It’s also very hypocritical of the the likes of Peterson to show up and repeat the same grandstanding speeches and lies that make them (and their pockets) very happy with themselves but do not help WA State’s population. They intentionally omit that most of those increases are consequences of their own policies. Anyone with an IQ above 20 knows that the socialist policies they are implementing do not work.

    Also expect more taxes and increased cost of living if that Ferguson somehow gets the State’s governor seat and he and his flying monkeys manage to pass their agendas’ legislations.

    1. Another reason landowners increase rents in situations like this is to clear the land for redevelopment. When homeowners can no longer afford their ground lease payments, they either move their homes or abandon them. In the case of older homes with limited value or in fragile condition, abandonment is the more likely result. In either event, the landowner is able to redevelop the land to a higher and “better” use, i.e. a more profitable use.

      I know nothing about this industry, but for homeowners who don’t own the dirt under their homes, best advice would be to negotiate a ground lease at least as long as the expected life of their home, and at a rate they can afford over the life of the home. Situations like the one discussed in this article are avoidable…at least in theory.

      1. Excellent comment.
        I would suspect that “if” home owners knew of the change in owership, many of them would avoid the issue. As this is human nature… a law requiring notice land ownership change is needed at a minimum.
        Ernie Judson

    2. I can tell you from experience. Investor’s see far more than fixing things up. I lived in a mobile home community in Florida and I will like so many have to give it to the park for nothing so i can afford something else. I am like several others who can’t sell my home. In my case my community has a canal that takes you to a beautiful lake. It would be a great place for homes to be built as waterfront property giving even more profit than a mobile home park. There’s no protection for the elderly when they live on valuable

    3. It would seem that landlords who were purchasing such a property were not making a very educated decision given the level of disrepair as well as even bothering to understand that many of these residents are on a fixed income which is why they decided to live there in the first place. There needs to be more protections in place for these people. Land trust is a great idea, and it should be mandatory that these companies who own or are purchasing these communities have a staffed office onsite that offers assistance and shows available resources for it’s residents.

    4. Mario Rossi, is “for profit” a bad expression for you that you have to cover it with “pure pleasure”?

      Collective Community is an Investment company by own definition. They invest for profit, nothing else and plan to re-sell for a profit after 5years. They are not in this for measure, least of all to provide affordable housing.

      Property taxes go up according to “fair market value” defined as a price a buyer is willing to put down. WA State is by law limited to charge 1% of that value created by greed.

      Lawmakers are elected to represent the people’s choices, which are not necessary good choices for our communities, like preferring single family zonings. Traditionally, home owners are registered voters and they tend to vote conservative. That is why we have not enough affordable housing because politicians only make law for people who vote. So don’t blame this mess on Democrats (which have stiffed renters for the same reasons just recently).

      I just hope that renters got the message now.

      1. Hi Manuela, I meant that landlords do not increase the rent because they enjoy it. As private companies, they seek profit, and will increase the rent when their costs (taxes, insurance, maintenance, utilities, etc.) increase. And most of the costs are caused by those government goons themselves. Investors like stability and all government policies and laws only make things unstable.

        And then the hypocrites play the class-warfare game pushing the tenants against the landlords, when it’s their own policies that cause the rent increase.

        By the way, we are witnessing that right now here in Edmonds with that “high density plan” travesty, which will repeat the very same playbook. And this will not only cause tenants but also low-income homeowners out of their houses. And then the same hypocrites will come up with the same class warfare “rich vs. poor.”

    5. I am a multi-family manager for 21 communities with 422 rental units combined. 97 of these units are in Edmonds, the remainder in King County. This year alone for 5 properties owned by the same owner the insurance went from 90,000 to 250,000 a year. Property taxes went up by $18,257 at one property alone in Edmonds this year due to high costs of homes and voter approved levies. Utility rates go up, and with the high minimum wage, so does our costs for basic maintenance. We have tenants who don’t pay and we can’t evict because court backlogs are up to 9 months. Factor in the desires for amenities and high tech additions to homes and our profit margins on rent can be as low a 6 cents on the dollar. There is only so much that we can shoulder the costs for before we need to look at rent increases. I have never increased rent more than 9% in a year, and usually closer to 4%. Most of our properties are still below the market average for comparable units because we try to keep things affordable. I understand the concerns of the rent increases but also the difficulties for property owners and managers. There is no easy answer to this issue, unfortunately.

  3. I can appreciate both landlord and tenets situation however, moving forward low income tenets need assurance which caps rate increases to a reasonable level that both parties can live with. Asking anyone on a fixed income to pay 20 to 30 % increase in rent is not realistic.
    It would be in everyone’s best interest to work together to understand the financial implications the landlord is facing as well as the limitations tenets face in their ability to pay the proposed increases.

    Just like a marriage it’s best to come to a consensus for the betterment of all parties.

  4. It’s been like this for mobile home park tenants for decades. That’s the way it is with mobile home parks in a densifying urban region.

    In the 1980’s my wife’s grandparents moved out of a long gone mobile home park in Woodinville to an ADU built in my in laws back yard in Mukilteo. The trailer was well kept but basically worthless without a pad. That happened 40 years ago. Not much has changed in those 40 years when it comes to mobile homes in urban growth areas.

  5. Too late for me I’m living in my car after losing my manufactured home. I’m 61 and disabled.

    1. My sincere apologies that you have to go through this. The corporate greed that’s filling the lands MUST be addressed. God is not happy with this. We’re experiencing something similar here in Illinois. Decision makers have the power. Now they need to collectively put a stop to it. Peaceful day to you and blessings.

  6. I work in healthcare for over 20 years I don’t know what Corporation bought up the mobile home parks but it looks like to me that they’re trying to force the seniors out since they’re going to be making homelessness illegal it looks like the if they can’t foot the cost of the new regulations they’re all going to have to go into assisted living facilities and that maybe what they want in the first place

  7. I’m in a mobile home park and Minnesota Twin Cities. I have only been there for 5 months and they have already raised my rent from $655 a month to 710. I got a crew to buy the mobile home on my income and I’m already getting close to being priced out. And then I found out that there are pipes under my house that were recalled in a class action lawsuit They are prone to rupturing at any time. It’s called quest piping. I planned on staying here until I died now I don’t know if I can afford it or what to do. Does anybody have any advice or help?

  8. My advice is to not listen or vote for anyone anymore who claims they will find anyone affordable housing, whether it be SF, multi family or subsidized. The feeble attempts they say they are trying with their new initiatives ha. What ya get two years before you get the boot. If I were a person in this situation I would find 4 separate households (old or young folks) buy a car and make sure it’s in good working order and head for a Red states. There if you ever look at Zillow as I do daily you would find if you stay out of the cities and find more rural communities you could maybe buy your own small home and live together, add on if you need. Have a yard, garden and not pay huge taxes. MN. Surprised ya shouldn’t be. Ill. Nope. Ya gotta go to the midwest Red States where it is safer, you are not taxed to death and the people are very pleasant. IA I see what one can get in Iowa as far as buying and its decent if you stay out of the cities. MO has medicaid. They have great hospitals who visit small towns. Take medicaid patients hospitals all. Columbia MO. Boone.Hosp. +UMHosp. Not telling you to leave but trying to save you. IA, KS. MO, KY.

    1. Deborah, you realize that Republicans don’t give a hoot about anybody that can’t make a living, for one reason or another?!,
      No Republican, not ONE, voted for renters protection. Not in Washington State and not in Washington D.C.
      Yeah, you have to live in the woods with a group of peers to afford housing, and you better grow your own food. Enjoy!

      1. Manuela, I am speaking of areas I know for positive certain that many people are on Medicaid and have subsidized housing. I know positively of areas in MO in particular where frankly unlike ME most of the citizens are Republicans. I also know that a person can buy a home from between 100,000. Dollars and 350,000. with a yard and not so many regs that a couple trailer homes cannot be on those large lots. I have family that are Republican. Not all of them but some are and two are school teachers. The children there have very nice schools (high ratings) and no one is left out and no one is hurt either. My relatives that are conservative have friends of all colors, LGBTQ all of the people we all support here, and all income brackets. I am only suggesting that perhaps looking around our country might be better than living in your car or on the streets, with little hope of housing in any near future here. I don’t know what DC votes for or WA state all of the time. I am only trying to help some of our Snohomish County citizens who seem to be desperate. I care more about people than I do politics or politicians. Oh also they have food banks where I hail from free and day care.

      2. All the conservatives gave up on Washington State and moved to red states. The only so-called republicans left are the RINOs that couldn’t run on the Democratic filled primaries.

  9. It is illogical, irrational, and unreasonable to be considered an owner and a renter at the same time. The only form of ownership that is somewhat similar is a land lease which is common in commercial real estate and in some areas in residential properties based on a minimum lease term of 99 years and a minimal annual ground rent. Washington State considers all properly sited manufactured homes to be real property and assigns an APN number to each parcel. You, the home owner, are the owner/ taxpayer of your parcel (home and lot). The “community owner” has absolutely no ownership interest or rights to your parcel (home and lot). It’s absurd that any property management company can decide that they OWN a community, make you pay a monthly ransome to the point of economic eviction, then steal the land from underneath and around your homesteads! The local and state governments are not protecting you property owners from these modern day pirates. They are literally wringing their hands as they watch these pirates pillage and plunder your homes and communities. Most of these communities are self sufficient and don’t need a property management company to handle community affairs. You can’t have private companies buying entire neighborhoods and holding the homeowners hostage, but that’s exactly what’s happening all across the country.

    1. I agree with you Patricia in all that you say here. I do know that in MO at least in the rural areas I am speaking of that they don’t have growth demands. That state wouldn’t allow it. I think it is horrible how people are being gouged here and must leave their rented land because they can no longer afford the increases from those land owners. In MO for instance it is almost impossible to buy the land from large farms. Farm land is very expensive and I tried myself once to find a huge land owner that would sell me even 100 acres. I even offered to will the property back to the family at death. Nope they won’t do it back there. BUT as I told Manuela I do know that so many people in the state of MO and IA do have nice accommodations and do have benefits such as medicaid and food subsidies and schools all kids share there. I think WA state spends a lot of money right now on some things that really do not help our underserved communities at all. Affordable housing here is not affordable it’s that simple. It shouldn’t even be called Unaffordable. There and here our churches do a lot to help others. I read about that. I think it’s great.

    2. True. It is like living on your yacht at a municipal marina where you pay a constantly rising slip rent until you have to move to a more affordable marina.
      This could all be more easily avoided if ownership of these communities were limited only to corporations not publicly traded on the stock market where quarterly dividends drive the profit margins for operation of the parks. Then the parks would become affordable for the residents to buy when not having to compete for ownership with deep pocket corporations who are getting low interest loans from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

  10. Deborah, the problem with your suggestion is that these people might have a job here or relatives. They know nobody MO.
    Most people cannot just pack up and move somewhere when they don’t know what they are getting into.
    MO has a much smaller population than WA State. That makes politics easier, too.
    The point is that we have to find a solution for out-of-state buy-outs of housing, and we have to put a lid on cost of shelter. For profit healthcare isn’t working, for profit jail isn’t working, for profit education isn’t working, and neither is for profit housing. The cost for the
    damage to our society to protect business greed is much higher than the profit we shore up, it’s costing lived.

    1. Hi Manuela, I’ll take your post as sarcasm. In which country has “non-profit” state-managed healthcare, education, etc. worked?

      As a healthcare example, how’s Canada doing? My sister in law and niece have to come to the US if they need serious healthcare, and this is a common issue for many Canadians. Unless they want in the suicide-assisted government program?

      Education? That’s a joke that, by the way, is one of the responsible for increased costs of real estate (better school districts rings a bell?). That’s a government-sponsored travesty that drives more disparities between the high and low-income population. Some universities aren’t even requiring SAT and other tests anymore because low-income students cannot even pass standardized tests. And the same politicians that cause it say it’s “racist”.

      How are the Venezuelas, Cubas, North Koreas and other “socialist paradises” of the world that those politicians praise while following their models, and filling their own pockets, doing? Edmonds is on the way to become one of them.

      It’s quite amusing watching those goons pointing fingers at private entities while themselves keep increasing their taxes, fees, and creating new ones, while driving the areas they manage into bankruptcy and providing a substandard service that would take a private company to court if not shut down. Like Ms. Thatcher said, “socialism only works until other people’s money ends”.

  11. Mario, I am German born and raised. Healthcare is one of the best in the world and it is socialized. Of course, Dr’s are free to work for private patients only, if they can make a living with that. They tried to put Hospitals on a for-profit basis about 4 years ago and they are now ruling that back, because costs for patient care are exploding. Education is free – but, since the idea is to reimburse taxpayers via taxes from higher paying jobs in the future, there are restrictions and standards for students and schools/Universities. Here again, of course you are free to join any for-profit education institute if you think that’s paying off. Rents are regulated, but since that is an investment market in Europe as well – investors still have enough loopholes available and rents are too high in big cities. People are starting protest because of that now. If your sister-in-law and niece are rich enough to pay for US Dr’s out of pocket, congratulation. The Canadian and the European system work similar: they provide what is necessary and scientifically proven to work. Nobody gets denied urgent care. I also have relatives living in Canada. They have no problem with getting treatment at their Dr’s or Hospitals.
    “Venezuela, Cuba, North Korea” = gaslighting much?!

  12. Two things. WA pop estimated in 2024 is 7.8 million. Est for MO in 2024 is 6.1 Million. So yes, it is a bit smaller. Otherwise I know what you are saying, and I know from firsthand experience how difficult it is to move to a place where you no absolutely no one and I cried and cried almost 40 years ago when We drove out of town after saying goodby one last time to our friends and relatives. We were in our mid 30’s when we left for my husband to get his Education after he had completed college. We still miss people and some we lost contact with. It’s hard no doubt and frankly everyone should do and go wherever aand whatever they choose. Like I said I was just trying to help. I can’t make WA state have more compassion. I can only have compassion myself. My Grandparents came over here from Germany. I still have a little sewing cabinet they brought with them and was left to me when my Grand ma died. They were children my grandparents and came here with my great-grandparents. They settled in the Midwest. I miss the way that I saw little hypocrisy in MO. I mean lots of times people didn’t agree but they were honest about it haha. How long have u lived here?

  13. Deborah, I get around 1.3 Mio as the population of Montana. That is significantly lower than WA State and a number easily handled by local politicians.
    I moved here from Berlin, Germany in 2005. I was already 45 years old and ready for a change to a more suburbs/slow life style. I certainly got that.
    I am not willing to give up on affordability of this rather remote lifestyle for living even further in the forests or fields of Montana or the likes of it.
    Affordable living here is a matter of choice. Peoples choice. If they want to put up with what their legislators don’t want to do, then they deserve what they get.
    I am not worried for myself.

    1. Hi Manuela, Deborah here. You just misread my comments. MO is Missouri in the Midwest. I am sure you are correct that Montana does have a much smaller population than MO. or WA. Montana is MT. Yeah, I wouldn’t want to live in the Woods in Montana either. I would not want to live in the Woods anywhere. In MO, Missouri it is not a state with Mountains. There in the Southern part of MO Missouri it does have what they call the Ozark mountains that also go into Arkansas AK. The area I grew up is called the Rolling Hills area of MO Its pretty there and I hail from a small town of 5,000 people. I left at 23 and moved to Iowa IA. There I lived in a town of 15,000 people but there were larger towns and small cities within an hour from us. Iowa City is a great area. It is where the University is and a very good teaching hospital too. If I were going to live in MO again I wouldn’t live in the Southern area but more Northwest. I wouldn’t live near St Louis either. I agree with you Manuela People do and should make their own choices in everything they do. I like you am not worried for myself. I hope for the best for others.

  14. Sorry about that, Deborah. I guess I am not quite familiar with the State abbreviations.

    I like to do what I can to help others, IF they are willing to help themselves, namely voting for lawmakers that care to consider their concerns. “No magic bullet” cannot be an excuse for laissez faire, eventually the market will sort it out. “Eventually” puts too much of a hardship on many.

    I hope that I do not have to move anymore. It’s no fun.

    All the best for you, Deborah.

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